Succinic Acid: An acid derived from a vegetable stock using sustainable yeast-based technology. Naturally present in mitochondria with an important role in the Krebs cycle.

Demonstrates antioxidant, anti-microbial and collagen-boosting properties. Supports skin’s natural renewal by inhibiting enzymes involved in collagen degradation and increasing oxygen consumption. Succinic acid causes mild exfoliation to reduce skin pigmentation, even out skin tone and texture, and reveal a smooth and radiant complexion.

Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA): A blend of two fruit-derived AHA: tartaric acid and citric acid. Tartaric acid is derived from citrus fruits and demonstrates gentle exfoliating properties while helping to unclog pores blocked by dead skin cells, bacteria and sebum. It also helps to effectively brighten the skin and reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation. Citric acid is a mild AHA derived from grapefruit which promotes gentle exfoliation and accelerates skin renewal.

Pumpkin enzymes: Pumpkin fruit (cucurbita maxima) is rich in vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C. It shows antioxidant, antimicr­obial and anti-inflammatory properties. Pumpkin fruit also contains proteases – proteolytic fruit enzymes which help to naturally exfoliate dead skin cells, promote skin renewal and brighten skin complexion.

Apple (Pyrus malus): A fruit extract rich in ursolic acid - a triterpenoid molecule with protective, firming, restructuring, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Apple extract also shows tonifying and skin-conditioning properties.

Shiso (Perilla frutescens): Shiso, also known as Japanese mint, is a plant rich in polyphenols (particularly rosmarinic acid) and triterpenoids (particularly ursolic acid). We use an extract obtained from Shiso leaf which demonstrates excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-allergic properties. Shiso leaf has been used for years in Kampo medicine due to strong detox properties, and its ability to soothe sensitive skin and prevent skin reactivity.

Lemon (Citrus medica limonum): Rich in citric acid and citroflavonoids, the extract from the lemon fruit possesses strong antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, astringent, toning and brightening properties.

Grape (Vitis vinifera): The extract obtained from the grape leaf and fruit is rich in polyphenols (anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol). This botanical demonstrates strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pollution and regenerative properties, and also supports collagen and elastin production to reinforce the skin’s firmness, elasticity and suppleness.

Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis): The juice obtained from the leaf of aloe shows multiple properties: moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, soothing and wound healing.

Yeast: A filtrate of the lysate (the solution consisting of the material released from cell lysis; cellular disruption) obtained by the fermentation of yeast (Saccharomyces). Rich in amino acids, essential minerals, beta-glucan and vitamins. Possesses anti-inflammatory, revitalising and protective properties. Increases cell respiration and metabolism, stimulates oxygen consumption and enhances skin repair.

Leuconostoc/Radish Root: A probiotic derived from the radish root fermented with the lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc kimchii. Demonstrates excellent anti-microbial and preserving properties. In addition, it provides moisturising and skin-conditioning benefits.